Abd al malik, Early Islam, First Century Manuscript, Historical Mention of Muhammad, Histrography of islam, Muhammad, Qur'anic, The Scriptures, Uncategorized

Muhammad : Early Christian Witnesses

 

Muhmmad is Considered as the Founder of Islam and The Final Prophet of God(According to Islam ).One of The Key Factor of Islam compared to Any other Religion that rose in Antiquity is that it rose in ”The Light of History ” , That is to say to Compared to any other religion that rose before islam have no Contemperory Witnesses and Confession.for example if we take the example  of  Christianity for Jesus as Historical Person- we have no first century A.D Witness in material as well as   Quotation though rare readable mention from Tacitus (Roman Historian) and Josephus (Jewish traitor ) are often quoted, they all come from 2nd Century A.D with no material documents from the same period.

Incase  of Muhammad and islam-We have Library of Sources from variety of language stretches from Syriac,Latin,Persian,Armenian,Coptic,Greek…etc

Out of Which Early Christian Witness mount to Large corpus of Description and Mentions,

 

Below is one among  Most Important Witnesses from the Period 1st Century A.H- i,e. 7th Century A.D. on the rise of Islam and Arab’s Liberation of Jerusalem from Romans(Byzantine)

Point to note – the Witness writes in christian point of view – that is to say how Christians saw invaders and their origin

Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem (d. ca. 639)

Intro :Sophronius (c. 560 – March 11, 638; Greek: Σωφρόνιος) was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 until his death, and is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches. Before rising to the primacy of the see of Jerusalem, he was a monk andtheologian who was the chief protagonist for Orthodox teaching in the doctrinal controversy on the essential nature of Jesus and his volitional acts.(Wikipedia)

In a synodical letter without date, Sophronius gives an extensive list of heretics and asks, in the valedictions, that the following may be granted by God to “our Christ-loving and most gentle emperors”:]

a strong and vigorous sceptre to break the pride of all the barbarians, and especially of the Saracens who, on account of our sins, have now risen up against us unexpectedly and ravage all with cruel and feral design, with impious and godless audacity. More than ever, therefore, we entreat your Holiness to make urgent petitions to Christ so that he, receiving these favourably from you, may quickly quell their mad insolence and deliver these vile creatures, as before, to be the footstool of our God-given emperors. (Ep. synodica, PG 87, 3197D-3200A [p. 69])

[The following comments are dated to December of 634.]

We, however, because of our innumerable sins and serious misdemeanours, are unable to see these things, and are prevented from entering Bethlehem by way of the road. Unwillingly, indeed, contrary to our wishes, we are required to stay at home, not bound closely by bodily bonds, but bound by fear of the Saracens. (Christmas Sermon, 506 [p. 70])

At once that of the Philistines, so now the army of the godless Saracens has captured the divine Bethlehem and bars our passage there, threatening slaughter and destruction if we leave this holy city and dare to approach our beloved and sacred Bethlehem. (Christmas Sermon, 507 [p. 70]

If we were to live as is dear and pleasing to God, we would rejoice over the fall of the Saracen enemy and observe their near ruin and witness their final demise. For their blood-loving blade will enter their hearts, their bow will be broken and their arrows will be fixed in them. (Christmas Sermon, 515 [p. 71])

[This dates to the 6th of December in 636 or 637.]

But the present circumstances are forcing me to think differently about our way of life, for why are [so many] wars being fought among us? Why do barbarian raids abound? Why are the troops of the Saracens attacking us? Why has there been so much destruction and plunder? Why are there incessant outpourings of human blood? Why are the birds of the sky devouring human bodies? Why have churches been pulled down? Why is the cross mocked? Why is Christ, who is the dispenser of all good things and the provider of this joyousness of ours, blasphemed by pagan mouths (ethnikois tois stomasi) so that he justly cries out to us: “Because of you my name is blasphemed among the pagans,” and this is the worst of all the terrible things that are happening to us. That is why the vengeful and God-hating Saracens, the abomination of desolation clearly foretold to us by the prophets, overrun the places which are not allowed to them, plunder cities, devastate fields, burn down villages, set on fire the holy churches, overturn the sacred monasteries, oppose the Byzantine armies arrayed against them, and in fighting raise up the trophies [of war] and add victory to victory. Moreover, they are raised up more and more against us and increase their blasphemy of Christ and the church, and utter wicked blasphemies against God. Those God-fighters boast of prevailing over all, assiduously and unrestrainably imitating their leader, who is the devil, and emulating his vanity because of which he has been expelled from heaven and been assigned to the gloomy shades. Yet these vile ones would not have accomplished this nor seized such a degree of power as to do and utter lawlessly all these things, unless we had first insulted the gift [of baptism] and first defiled the purification, and in this way grieved Christ, the giver of gifts, and prompted him to be angry with us, good though he is and though he takes no pleasure in evil, being the fount of kindness and not wishing to behold the ruin and destruction of men. We are ourselves, in truth, responsible for all these things and no word will be found for our defence. What word or place will be given us for our defence when we have taken all these gifts from him, befouled them and defiled everything with our vile actions? (Holy Baptism, 166-167 [pp. 72-73])

[In a work originally composed by John Moschus (d. 619), but expanded by Sophronius (d. ca. 639), actually found only in an addition of the Georgian translation, the following entry appears, concerning a construction dated by tradition at 638, i.e., soon after the capture of Jerusalem ca. 637. It appears in a portion concerning Sophronius as recounted on the authority of his contemporary, the archdeacon Theodore, and may have been written down ca. 670.]

the godless Saracens entered the holy city of Christ our Lord, Jerusalem, with the permission of God and in punishment for our negligence, which is considerable, and immediately proceeded in haste to the place which is called the Capitol. They took with them men, some by force, others by their own will, in order to clean that place and to build that cursed thing, intended for their prayer and which they call a mosque (midzgitha). (Pratum spirituale, 100-102 [p. 63])

Source ;

Seeing islam as other saw it – Robert Hoyland

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Did muhammad exist, Early Islam, early islamic coins, First Century Manuscript, Historical Mention of Muhammad, Histrography of islam, Muhammad, Uncategorized

Earliest Hadith Manuscript : Tradition of Muhammad

 

Hadith Codification Began Around mid of 01st Century A.H (Islamic  Calendar ) . Well Known Collection of Hadith usually Comes from Mid-of 8th Century AD i,e. 01st to 2nd Centruty A.H . Example : Collection of Buukhari, An-Nasai , Muslim , Thrimidhi

But, There Exist an older and more Historical Hadith Collection in Islamic Academia often Neglected by Scholars, Which is Materially Very Near to the Life time of Prophet Muhammad than All other Collection.

Muwatta of Imam Malik of Madinah – is one of the Earliest Codified Collection of Hadith from Prophet by Date and time. the Chains of Narration doesnt have Long List which claim to go back for 200 hundred years- Rather the  Shortest Goes back just by one to one , That is From Eye Witness to his Students from whom the Author of Muwatta Imam Malik Collected from.

Imam Malik was born in First Century Hijra in Madinah and His Magnum Opus was Published by  him in his lifetime .The Fascinating Thing about Al Muwatta is that We have a Manuscript of Muwatta from Imam Malik’s Life time Dated Around 179 A.H .

per Hadith.JPG

Papyrus Manuscript of Hadith Collection -Muwatta of Malik

We have Material Evidence from the lifetime of Imam Malik himself – this Recent Discovery shows how Arabs have not only passed down their Narration and History of Muhammad Orally – But ,Materially too they have Preserved their History

hadithmss.JPG

Those Traditions which are included in Muwwatta of Imam Malik can be also traced in Other Later Hadith Collection around 2nd to 3rd Century A.H.

 

Source :

Manuscript – Austrian National Library, Vienna.

Islamic Awarenesss

Petra M. Sijpesteijn, Hadith Fragment on Papyrus – Der Islam 2015 : pg 321- 331

Mustafah Al Azhami

Adnan Rashid – Hittin Institute

 

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Early christianity, Early Islam, early islamic coins, First Century Manuscript, Historical Mention of Muhammad, King Offa, Mercia, Muhammad, Robert Spencer, The Scriptures, Uncategorized

Islam in England : Islamic Coins in England & Christiandom

Offa_king_of_Mercia_757_793_gold_dinar_copy_of_dinar_of_the_Abassid_Caliphate_774.jpg

The Above Coin was minted by a Christian King Named OFFA of Mercia (England) in 8th Century A.D . There is Perfect Scholarly Opinion about Why a Christian King Minted Coins With Islamic Shahdaa – Stating – There is no god but Allah Alone (Front) – Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah (Reverse) with -OFFA-REX .

0-WVNZuYeB3HxPA7XW.jpegWell , If we Ignore Internet Junkies who cliam King Offa of Mecia converted to islam . The Possible reason would be that He would have minted to use for trade with ISLAMIC ANDALUSIA (Spain)  or to trade with Baghdad itself . If we Compare today, Every Nation Mint their coin with a English info – so, it might be organised worldwide . In 8th Century – Baghdad was The Superpower .

gold_coin_of_king_offa_by_nayzak-d4tdujs.jpg

Below We have a Anglo-Saxon Coin :

We dont know who minted it , but its minted in Europe because we have a cross on the front side to denote that itwas minted in Christendom and the Arabic mint is Poor.

Below We Have an Islamic-Latin Coin :

 

Reference and Source :

Islamic-Awareness :http://www.islamic-awareness.org/History/Islam/Coins

Dr.Khalili’s Collection .

Wikipedia : King Offa of Mercia

 

 

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Abd al malik, bigots and islamphobes, books, Did muhammad exist, Early Islam, early islamic coins, First Century Manuscript, Historical Mention of Muhammad, Histrography of islam, Muhammad, Qur'anic, Robert Spencer, Uncategorized

Muhammad : Cross and Coins – Early Islamic Coins origin

muhammad and cross

One of  the well known Conspiracy which is famous among Internet – Islamaphobes is THAT ” Muhammad Never Existed ” as a Historical Prophet . The Chief Proponents are well known Anti – Muslim Bigots from Evangelical Backgrounds in United States. Like Well Known Racist Robert Spencer .

Robert Spencer in his Bogus Propaganda Book Against Historical Muhammad –  Allege that  A Coin Dated From 684 – 685 A.D From Muslim Ruled Palestine – which show cases a variety of symbols and characteristics of typical Arab-Byzantine COINS ( when arabs Conquered SYRIA and Palestine, they started to mint coins Imitating-  EXISTING Roman Byzantine coins of the period -with Arabic formulas . So, their coins will be used in  market )    bear a STANDING Imperial Figure with a big standard adorned with Cross and on the reverse a ”M” with Muhammad minted in Arabic . Particularly  on the reverse the ”M” have a small cross adorned on its top .

He states that this in some fanciful way shows that Muhammad was a christian figure or a Title to a Christian figure who was famous among Christians ..etc etc…

This Conspiracy theory so famous that every Anti muslim propagators started to Quote as if Its True – Is it ?

NAAAH – a Big Fat no .Scholars in the Field of Numismatics and History will not even consider these sort of Crazy – ”Davinci Code” type Theories into their Footnotes .

So, Question Raises – that why do these coins have A Christian Cross and A Arabic Inscriptions.

When Muslim in 630s Conquered Syria and Palestine , they i,e.Arabs Who had no civilized government , No Economic System , no Coinage distinct for them…. Adopted the existing system in their Conquered Provinces  Both in Christian Byzantine Syria – Palestine and Persia – Sassanian Empire.

In Order to Show that they (Muslims) are in power over these territories – They started to MINT Existing Coins of their NEWLY Conquered Land with Their Own characters to show that they are the masters of the land of Byzantines and Persians.

Since, Arab-Muslim previously Never had a Coinage system , they Integrated existing coinage with their Motto and Formulas.

Historians and Numismatics scholars refer these coins as :

1.Arab-Byzantine Coins (in Byzantine Territories  )

2.Arab- Sassanian Coins (Persian Territories ) .

Example of Arab Byzantine Coins :

 

Observe this coin have a Big ”M” and some Greek inscription inits sides plus A Arabic word written down the ”M” . In this case – Muslims – Started to include the word ”Tayib”  in arabic which means – Okay or accepted , to show that these coins are issued under Arab-Muslims in newly conquered Byzantine lands.

 

 Notice , Here We have Different Arabic word – which also denotes a Approval Command in Arabic below the Big ”M”.

Notice in the below coins , We a Figure of Emperors of Byzantine-Territories Standing with long standard with cross on its top and In Reverse – We have the ”M”(M-Denotes value like cents,dollars) and  below a Arabic Word – DAM-indicating that it was Minted In Damsascus-Syria(Under Arab-Muslim Control)
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Observe Below Coin – Which is Purely – Byzantine Lacking Any Arabic Inscription.

Image result for arab byzantine Coins

After – 678 Onward , It became very evident that Arab-Muslims are gonna Stay in the Conquered Country and Byzantine cannot win back , Muslim Rulers started implementing Arab Coins Imitating Byzantine

 

Image result for arab byzantine CoinsImage result for arab byzantine Coins

Image result for arab byzantine Coins

Notice The Above Coins – Where We Have A cross in and A Greek Inscription of Alpha and Omega- a christian Formula  and Notice the Arab-Muslim Imitation Coins Where in place of a CROSS -We have A Single Pole. With Arabic Inscription -stating the Shaahda- Islamic Inscription.

Notice – in Byzantine coins we have Three Christian Emperors Holding Standard with Cross – Whereas In Arab-Muslim Coins We have Three Caliphs Without Cross .

—————————————————————————

Notice – The Difference Between the Christian-Byzantine Coins and The Arab-Muslim Coins.

 

Return Back to the Conspiracy theory – Where Internet Junkies- CLAIM The Below Coin as a Evident of a Christian Title – ”Muhammad”.

muhammad and cross

The Coin in question – are Arab-Byzantine Coins – Where Muslims started to include their FAITH and Doctrines into it .

 

Same Way – We have Arab-Sassanian Coins With Arabic inscription .

The Below Coins Also date around same period- Where Muslims after conquering Persia Started to Include the Faith and Creed into the Coins to show- Who are in Power .

Notice : The Coin have inits Front side a Persian Figure Plus a Long Arabic Inscription Which Reads – Bismillah-Muhammed Rasul-Allah-In the Name of Allah-Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

The Reformation – Power.

Once the Arab-Muslim Empire have established its Power in Three Continents, They Reformed their Coinage and System-with Their Own.

Reformed Coins Had No Images – Just -ISLAMIC theological statements and Qur’anic Verses.

References :

For Arab-Byzantine/Sassanian Coins : http://www.islamic-awareness.org/History/Islam/Coins/

British Museum-Islamic Coin Collection

John Walker – Mohammadan Coinage.

Pro.Ian Davis Morris.

Tony Goodwin –The Chronology of the Umayyad Imperial Image Coinage Progress over the last 10 years.

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Facsimile Editions of Early Qur’an Manuscripts: A Survey

International Qur'anic Studies Association

by Ahmed Shaker*

There are numerous Qur’an manuscripts, complete and partial, dating from the first century A.H. onward. Although there is no official count of Qur’an manuscripts in existence today, Muhammad Mustafa Al-A‘zami (2003) estimates the number at about 250,000. They may be found in mosques, museums, libraries, and institutions all over the world. In the past century, several early manuscripts have been published in facsimile editions, which reproduce as closely as possible the texts in their original manuscript forms, and may be purchased from specialized centers like IRCICA or borrowed from university libraries. Facsimile editions offer researchers in Qur’anic studies and Arabic paleography easy—if indirect—access to early Qur’an manuscripts.

The following is a concise chronological survey of select facsimile editions of early Qur’an manuscripts, including original title, date of publication, and—when possible—an estimated percentage of the total text of the Qur’an represented in the manuscript/facsimile.

1- Coran coufique de…

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Abd al malik, Early Islam, First Century Manuscript, Histrography of islam, lost scripture, Muhammad, Qur'anic, The Scriptures

British Library Publishes the First Century Hijra Quranic Manuscript Online

The British Library’s oldest Qur’ān manuscript, Or.2165, dating from the eighth century, has now been fully digitised and is available on the British Library’s Digitised Manuscripts site. Among the most ancient copies of the Qurʼān, it comprises 121 folios containing over two-thirds of the complete text and is one of the largest of known fragments of an early Qurʼān written in the māʼil script.

Or_2165_f007v
The end of Sūrah 7 (Sūrat al-A‘rāf, ‘The Heights’) and the beginning of Sūrah 8 (Sūrat al-Anfāl, ‘The Spoils of War’). The heading in red ink gives the title of the Sūrah and says that it contains 77 verses (British Library Or.2165, folio 7v)  noc

This manuscript was purchased by the British Museum in 1879 from the Reverend Greville John Chester (1830-1892) as noted on a fly leaf at the back of the manuscript. Chester was an ordained clergyman interested in archaeology, Egyptology and natural history and made numerous trips to Egypt and the Near East, where he acquired objects and manuscripts, which are now in the collections of major UK cultural and library institutions. It is very likely he acquired this Qur’ān when he was in Egypt.

Or_2165_fse004v
Acquisition details recorded at the end of the manuscript (British Library Or.2165, endpaper)  noc

The earliest Qur’ān manuscripts were produced in the mid-to-late seventh century, and ancient copies from this period have not survived intact and exist only in fragments. Or.2165 contains three series of consecutive leaves (Sūrah 7:40 – Sūrah 9:96; Sūrah 10:9 – Sūrah 39:48; Sūrah 40:63 – Sūrah 43:71) from the so-called mā’il Qur’ān, which is about two-thirds of the Qur’ān text and is one of the oldest Qur’āns in the world. It probably dates from the eighth century, and as far as can be ascertained, was produced in the Hijaz region of the Arabian Peninsula.

The Arabic word mā’il (by which this Qur’ān is known) means ‘sloping’ and refers to the sloping style of the script – one of a number of early Arabic scripts collectively named ‘Hijazi’ after the region in which they were developed. The main characteristic of mā’il is its pronounced slant to the right. It can also be recognised by the distinctive traits of some of its letters, for example, the letter alif does not curve at the bottom but is rigid, and the letter yā’, occurring at the end of a word, turns and extends backwards frequently underlying the preceding words.

Fig 1               Fig2
Left: the letter alif; six small dashes mark the end of the verse
Right: the letter yā’; the Sūrah heading in red ink was added later

In early Qur’āns there are no vowel signs, and this early style of script is also notable for its lack of diacritical marks to distinguish between letters of similar shape. Verse numbering had also not yet been established; the end of each verse was indicated by six small dashes in two stacks of three. The sūrah headings were added much later in red ink in the recognisable space purposely left blank to distinguish between the end and the beginning of chapters. Red circles surrounded by red dots to mark the end of every ten verses were also added later.

Opening
The beginning of Sūrah 12 (Sūrat Yūsuf, ‘Joseph’) showing the verse markers and also the red headings and circles which were added later (British Library Or.2165, folios 23v-24r)  noc

As with all early Qur’āns, the text is written on vellum and would have been bound into a codex or muṣḥaf – originally a collection of sheets of vellum placed between two boards. Each double sheet was folded into two leaves, which were assembled into gatherings then sewn together and bound as quires into a codex.

The importance of Or.2165, in addition to all other known early Qur’ān fragments, cannot be overestimated. They provide the only available evidence for the early development of the written recording of the Qur’ān text and help towards our understanding of how early Qur’ān codices were produced.

 

For Manuscript Please Visit : http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=or_2165_fs001r


Further reading

Rieu, Charles, Supplement to the Catalogue of the Arabic Manuscripts, London, The British Museum 1894, Item 56, pp. 37-38.
Déroche, François and Noseda, Sergio Noja, Sources de la transmission manuscrite du texte coranique I, Les manuscrits de style ḥiǧāzi, Volume 2, tome 1, Le manuscrit Or.2165 (f. 1 à 61) de la British Library, Lesa, 2001.
Baker, Colin F., Qur’an manuscripts: Calligraphy, Illumination, Design, London, 2007, pp.15-18.

Colin F. Baker, Head of Middle Eastern and Central Asian Collections

– See more at: http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/asian-and-african/2016/04/the-british-librarys-oldest-quran-manuscript-now-online.html#sthash.E6bj6VVm.dpuf

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A 7th Century War On Terror – By Adnan Rashid – Hittin Institute

Blogging Theology

‘What is there now, I ask of delight in this world? Everywhere we observe strife; fields are depopulated, the land has returned to solitude…And yet the blows of Divine justice have no end, because among the blows those guilty of evil acts are not corrected…’ [1]

These are the words of Pope Gregory the Great (c. AD 594) who was a contemporary of the Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him). He was clearly wishing for divine justice to emerge in order to correct the evildoers i.e. the Lombard tyrants in this case. The Divine intervention was at hand:

“And We have sent you (O Muhammad) not but as a mercy to mankind”[2]

And mercy he was. The Messenger of Allah received the above revelation not long after the disturbing plea of the Pope and this revelation was a signal for the Prophet to initiate a war against terror and tyranny…

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