One of the basic tenet of Islam and its base of propagation from its birth to till date is that Jews and Christians were expecting a prophet after The Messiah . The prophet like Moses who would come with The Law and establish a Community.
This Prophecy is not a major tenet and belief in Christianity today. Even so,you cam hardly find any direct quotation from newtestament for the prophecy where Jesus foretells The prophet to come.
So,question arises – from where did this concept of the prophecy supposedly foretold by Jesus come about ?
In case of Muslims it is straightforward – direct quotation from Qur’an –
1.Where it directly proclaims that Jesus foretold about The final Prophet to come.
2.jewsish and christian scriptures have direct prophecies.
3.Moses himself foretold about the prophet.
4.Mainly, during Muhammad’s , Quran says Jewish and Christian community really were expecting The prophet in 6th century.
These quotations are no were can substantiated in the current Jewish and christian scriptures though ….
Hinduism – is the major religion in India, tracing its origin long back before any Abrahamic Faith. It has its root so deep in history that goes far beyond anything that has been classified as ancient and Classical Period.
But, that’s not the point i want to show here – does Modern Hindu religion and its pantheon of god and goddess travel back in history as the Hinduism… ?
Answer is straight forward NO. The Reason being the modern pantheon of Hindu Gods and Goddess are not that ancient that includes for gods such as Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesh, Rama..etc
The invention of these Gods (shiva, Vishnu -marginal vedic deity..etc) are infact was a response to The Great Buddha.
Long Story Short :
The Popular Gods and Goddess of Modern Hinduism is No were found before Buddha’s Life time or immediately thereafter. Buddha’s life period was some where between c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE. All Available inscriptions, Temple carvings, Vedas to Literature before Buddha or immediately after Buddha never mention any Modern Indian Gods like Shiva, Vishnu, or Even Ganesh,
Vedas : Scholars from India as well outside india well-versed in Indology and archaeology agree that Rig Veda is the first religious text that is available from Ancient India soon after Aryan Invasion of Indian Sub Continent around 1500 BCE. Rig Veda is of very much reverence and Holy even till today among religious Hindus. Rig Veda list many gods that was worshiped by that days Hindus, is the main proponent of Modern Evil Caste-ism in India.
Among long list of Gods and Goddess invoked not one straight reference exist for Shiva(Except Rudra) ,Vishnu-Marginal deity, Rama or Ganesh to name few.
Buddha: In Vedic India
Buddha was born during this time and period where Indians worshiped Vedic gods like Varuna, Indra, Adhiti, Mitra. Buddha brought a new religious way of life against the Vedic gods and it was soon popularized by many Kings who adopted Buddhism.
Rise of Buddhism and Death of Vedic gods:
Buddhism flourished against dwindling Indian Vedic religion, Buddha himself after his death was deitified and became an object of Worship. During this period of Buddhism rose Ashoka c. 268 – c. 232 BC Who took Buddha as his personal god and spread through out South east Asia. That was the Soma of Buddhism and venom for Hindusim.
The existing Hinduism went through Huge change as Vedic religion lacks any Single form of Religious tale and one point focus for worship and growth of thier religion like Buddhism.
Rise of Religious Fiction and Sanskrit Puranas (Chronicles & Tales)
Ramayana and Mahabhrata – Two Great Epics of Sanskrit was composed around 400 BCE to 200 CE(Note its Common era). With the introduction of great epics many personal gods arose among the Indians who were either linked to old dead vedic gods or Given New Genesis story for their Mass entry to Hinduism.
Many new tales were composed and many songs were written which in turn was adopted at royal courts and patronage.
Rama, Vishnu, krishna..etc were still at border line between Characters from books to gods in During their Entry time.
The Gupta Empire : Fall of an Empire and Rise of New Hinduism
The Gupta Empire which flourished from 480 CE to c. 500 C paralleled the rise of Ramayana and Mahabharata with other Sanskrit tales and song. The Guptas spread the new found Gods and Goddess from these epics Along with the Buddha around india, it is well documented in Ellora Caves Dedicated by Guptas .
Ellora caves shows how the New Found gods were sidelining Buddhism and Old Vedic Gods Total erased from Worship.
Death of Buddhism and Rise of New Non Vedic Gods:
Buddhism started to decline due to heavy persecution from Non Vedic god worshipers and in its ashes rose Personal Gods like Ganesh, Vishu, Rama,..etc
Concept of Personal :
Hinduism realized how important was Personal gods -one point of focus and people’s need and reverence than vedic gods who were long list of deities to be revered, the very concept of personal god was direct borrowing from Buddhism – where reverence of Buddha and his teaching attracted Hindus. Lesson leaned in hard way !
- There is no Single Inscription on Shiva or Vishnu on before the time line of Buddha.
- We dont find any Temple dedicated to Rama or Vishnu on or before Buddha’s time line.
- Not even an Single reference exist for Rama (a character from Sanskrit poem) in vedas or any place of worship before common Era.
- No material evidence – like manuscript of Ramayana and Mahabharat exist before 11th Century CE (Just 900 Years ago) and a vague reference to Mahabharata in 200 CE Respectively.
- Sudden Bhakthi movements in southern india with literature popping up in Tamil around 11th Century.No temple dedicated to Ganesh exist before 6th Century CE and not even single reference to the Elephant headed god exist in any vedas .he is one of the new Non Vedic God Invented or adopted during Common era.
If there was no Buddhism , There wouldn’t be Modern Hinduism and New Gods.
The Mysterious Origin of new Character – Ganesh into Indian Panheon of Gods is still debated and fought.
One plain truth is the Modern Hinduism and their Gods are just new as Judaism,Christianity and Islam. Very new in history but still claims 5000 years of history.
The Alexamenos graffito (also known as the graffito blasfemo, or blasphemous graffito):393 is a piece of Roman graffiti scratched in plaster on the wall of a room near the Palatine Hill in Rome, which has now been removed and is in the Palatine Hill Museum. It may be the earliest surviving depiction of Jesus and, if so, competes with an engraved gem as the earliest known pictorial representation of the Crucifixion of Jesus. It is hard to date, but has been estimated to have been made c. 200. The image seems to show a young man worshipping a crucified, donkey-headed figure. The Greek inscription approximately translates to “Alexamenos worships [his] God,” indicating that the graffito was apparently meant to mock a Christian named Alexamenos.
Meaning of the carving :
The image depicts a human-like figure affixed to a cross and possessing the head of a donkey. In the top right of the image is what has been interpreted as either the Greek letter upsilon or a tau cross. To the left of the image is a young man, apparently intended to represent Alexamenos, a Roman soldier/guard, raising one hand in a gesture possibly suggesting worship. Beneath the cross is a caption written in crude Greek: ΑΛΕ ξΑΜΕΝΟϹ ϹΕΒΕΤΕ ϑΕΟΝ. ϹΕΒΕΤΕ can be understood as a variant spelling (possibly a phonetic misspelling) of Standard Greek ϹΕΒΕΤΑΙ, which means “worships”. The full inscription would then be read as Ᾰλεξᾰ́μενος σέβεται θεόν, “Alexamenos worships [his] God”. Several other sources suggest “Alexamenos worshiping a god”, or similar variants, as the intended translation.
Muhmmad is Considered as the Founder of Islam and The Final Prophet of God(According to Islam ).One of The Key Factor of Islam compared to Any other Religion that rose in Antiquity is that it rose in ”The Light of History ” , That is to say to Compared to any other religion that rose before islam have no Contemperory Witnesses and Confession.for example if we take the example of Christianity for Jesus as Historical Person- we have no first century A.D Witness in material as well as Quotation though rare readable mention from Tacitus (Roman Historian) and Josephus (Jewish traitor ) are often quoted, they all come from 2nd Century A.D with no material documents from the same period.
Incase of Muhammad and islam-We have Library of Sources from variety of language stretches from Syriac,Latin,Persian,Armenian,Coptic,Greek…etc
Out of Which Early Christian Witness mount to Large corpus of Description and Mentions,
Below is one among Most Important Witnesses from the Period 1st Century A.H- i,e. 7th Century A.D. on the rise of Islam and Arab’s Liberation of Jerusalem from Romans(Byzantine)
Point to note – the Witness writes in christian point of view – that is to say how Christians saw invaders and their origin
Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem (d. ca. 639)
Intro :Sophronius (c. 560 – March 11, 638; Greek: Σωφρόνιος) was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 until his death, and is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches. Before rising to the primacy of the see of Jerusalem, he was a monk andtheologian who was the chief protagonist for Orthodox teaching in the doctrinal controversy on the essential nature of Jesus and his volitional acts.(Wikipedia)
In a synodical letter without date, Sophronius gives an extensive list of heretics and asks, in the valedictions, that the following may be granted by God to “our Christ-loving and most gentle emperors”:]
a strong and vigorous sceptre to break the pride of all the barbarians, and especially of the Saracens who, on account of our sins, have now risen up against us unexpectedly and ravage all with cruel and feral design, with impious and godless audacity. More than ever, therefore, we entreat your Holiness to make urgent petitions to Christ so that he, receiving these favourably from you, may quickly quell their mad insolence and deliver these vile creatures, as before, to be the footstool of our God-given emperors. (Ep. synodica, PG 87, 3197D-3200A [p. 69])
We, however, because of our innumerable sins and serious misdemeanours, are unable to see these things, and are prevented from entering Bethlehem by way of the road. Unwillingly, indeed, contrary to our wishes, we are required to stay at home, not bound closely by bodily bonds, but bound by fear of the Saracens. (Christmas Sermon, 506 [p. 70])
At once that of the Philistines, so now the army of the godless Saracens has captured the divine Bethlehem and bars our passage there, threatening slaughter and destruction if we leave this holy city and dare to approach our beloved and sacred Bethlehem. (Christmas Sermon, 507 [p. 70]
If we were to live as is dear and pleasing to God, we would rejoice over the fall of the Saracen enemy and observe their near ruin and witness their final demise. For their blood-loving blade will enter their hearts, their bow will be broken and their arrows will be fixed in them. (Christmas Sermon, 515 [p. 71])
[This dates to the 6th of December in 636 or 637.]
But the present circumstances are forcing me to think differently about our way of life, for why are [so many] wars being fought among us? Why do barbarian raids abound? Why are the troops of the Saracens attacking us? Why has there been so much destruction and plunder? Why are there incessant outpourings of human blood? Why are the birds of the sky devouring human bodies? Why have churches been pulled down? Why is the cross mocked? Why is Christ, who is the dispenser of all good things and the provider of this joyousness of ours, blasphemed by pagan mouths (ethnikois tois stomasi) so that he justly cries out to us: “Because of you my name is blasphemed among the pagans,” and this is the worst of all the terrible things that are happening to us. That is why the vengeful and God-hating Saracens, the abomination of desolation clearly foretold to us by the prophets, overrun the places which are not allowed to them, plunder cities, devastate fields, burn down villages, set on fire the holy churches, overturn the sacred monasteries, oppose the Byzantine armies arrayed against them, and in fighting raise up the trophies [of war] and add victory to victory. Moreover, they are raised up more and more against us and increase their blasphemy of Christ and the church, and utter wicked blasphemies against God. Those God-fighters boast of prevailing over all, assiduously and unrestrainably imitating their leader, who is the devil, and emulating his vanity because of which he has been expelled from heaven and been assigned to the gloomy shades. Yet these vile ones would not have accomplished this nor seized such a degree of power as to do and utter lawlessly all these things, unless we had first insulted the gift [of baptism] and first defiled the purification, and in this way grieved Christ, the giver of gifts, and prompted him to be angry with us, good though he is and though he takes no pleasure in evil, being the fount of kindness and not wishing to behold the ruin and destruction of men. We are ourselves, in truth, responsible for all these things and no word will be found for our defence. What word or place will be given us for our defence when we have taken all these gifts from him, befouled them and defiled everything with our vile actions? (Holy Baptism, 166-167 [pp. 72-73])
[In a work originally composed by John Moschus (d. 619), but expanded by Sophronius (d. ca. 639), actually found only in an addition of the Georgian translation, the following entry appears, concerning a construction dated by tradition at 638, i.e., soon after the capture of Jerusalem ca. 637. It appears in a portion concerning Sophronius as recounted on the authority of his contemporary, the archdeacon Theodore, and may have been written down ca. 670.]
the godless Saracens entered the holy city of Christ our Lord, Jerusalem, with the permission of God and in punishment for our negligence, which is considerable, and immediately proceeded in haste to the place which is called the Capitol. They took with them men, some by force, others by their own will, in order to clean that place and to build that cursed thing, intended for their prayer and which they call a mosque (midzgitha). (Pratum spirituale, 100-102 [p. 63])
Seeing islam as other saw it – Robert Hoyland
Hadith Codification Began Around mid of 01st Century A.H (Islamic Calendar ) . Well Known Collection of Hadith usually Comes from Mid-of 8th Century AD i,e. 01st to 2nd Centruty A.H . Example : Collection of Buukhari, An-Nasai , Muslim , Thrimidhi
But, There Exist an older and more Historical Hadith Collection in Islamic Academia often Neglected by Scholars, Which is Materially Very Near to the Life time of Prophet Muhammad than All other Collection.
Muwatta of Imam Malik of Madinah – is one of the Earliest Codified Collection of Hadith from Prophet by Date and time. the Chains of Narration doesnt have Long List which claim to go back for 200 hundred years- Rather the Shortest Goes back just by one to one , That is From Eye Witness to his Students from whom the Author of Muwatta Imam Malik Collected from.
Imam Malik was born in First Century Hijra in Madinah and His Magnum Opus was Published by him in his lifetime .The Fascinating Thing about Al Muwatta is that We have a Manuscript of Muwatta from Imam Malik’s Life time Dated Around 179 A.H .
We have Material Evidence from the lifetime of Imam Malik himself – this Recent Discovery shows how Arabs have not only passed down their Narration and History of Muhammad Orally – But ,Materially too they have Preserved their History
Those Traditions which are included in Muwwatta of Imam Malik can be also traced in Other Later Hadith Collection around 2nd to 3rd Century A.H.
Manuscript – Austrian National Library, Vienna.
Petra M. Sijpesteijn, Hadith Fragment on Papyrus – Der Islam 2015 : pg 321- 331
Mustafah Al Azhami
Adnan Rashid – Hittin Institute
The Above Coin was minted by a Christian King Named OFFA of Mercia (England) in 8th Century A.D . There is Perfect Scholarly Opinion about Why a Christian King Minted Coins With Islamic Shahdaa – Stating – There is no god but Allah Alone (Front) – Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah (Reverse) with -OFFA-REX .
Well , If we Ignore Internet Junkies who cliam King Offa of Mecia converted to islam . The Possible reason would be that He would have minted to use for trade with ISLAMIC ANDALUSIA (Spain) or to trade with Baghdad itself . If we Compare today, Every Nation Mint their coin with a English info – so, it might be organised worldwide . In 8th Century – Baghdad was The Superpower .
Below We have a Anglo-Saxon Coin :
We dont know who minted it , but its minted in Europe because we have a cross on the front side to denote that itwas minted in Christendom and the Arabic mint is Poor.
Below We Have an Islamic-Latin Coin :
Reference and Source :
Dr.Khalili’s Collection .
Wikipedia : King Offa of Mercia